Typical headlosses Wastewater Treatment Plant

The Typical headlosses Wastewater Treatment Plant for various treatment technologies are as follows;
Type of treatment plant
Range of overall head loss(m)
Activated sludge2.5-3.0
Trickling filter4.0-6.0
Lagoon or pond type1.0-1.5
Typical Value of Head losses of Plant component
Treatment Plant Unit
Range of head loss (m)
Screen channel0.15-0.30
Grit channel0.06-0.6
Primary settling Tank0.40-0.60
Secondary settling tank0.40-0.60
Activated sludge aeration tank0.20-0.40
Trickling filter (downflow type)3.0-4.0
Rock filters (upflow contact bed)0.3-0.5
Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket1.0-1.5
Aerated lagoon type0.2-0.4
Algal waste stablisation pond0.2-0.3
Duckweed hyacinth pond0.2-0.3
Constructed wetland unit0.5-2.0
Land irrigation system
Head losses in interconnecting
PipesHazen William’s equation
Bends0.2-0.5 (v2/2g)
Valves0.12-1.5 (v2/2g)
ChannelsManning’s equation